The French bulldogs, named Asia, Koji and Gustav, were taken on 24 February in a violent attack in which their walker Ryan Fischer was shot.
Mr Fischer, who survived the attack, has said on social media he had "a very close call with death".
The attack, which happened on the famous Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood, was caught on video on the doorbell camera of a nearby home.
In the video, two men jumped out of a white sedan, pulling a gun on Mr Fischer.
A single shot was fired and the men made off with the dogs.
Mr Fischer is seen screaming "Oh, my God, I've been shot" and "help me" and "I'm bleeding out from my chest".
The dogs are thought to have been taken for their cash value and the thieves are not believed to have known who owned them, detectives said in a statement.
Lady Gaga offered a $500,000 'no questions asked' reward for their safe return, and they were taken to an LA police station two days later.
At the time, the woman appeared to be "uninvolved and unassociated" with the crime, police said.
In a statement issued on Thursday night, LA police said that evidence suggests the suspects knew how valuable the dogs were.
They named the suspects as "documented gang members" James Jackson, Jaylin White, and Lafayette Whaley.
They have been charged with one count each of attempted murder, conspiracy to commit robbery, and second degree robbery.
Jackson also face one count of assault with a semi-automatic firearm and one count of carrying a concealed firearm in a vehicle.
Harold White, also an alleged gang member, and Jennifer McBride, are charged with one count each of accessory after the fact. White is also charged with one count of possession of a firearm, and McBride faces one count of receiving stolen property.
McBride had reported that she found the dogs and responded to the reward email to return the dogs, the statement said.
Los Angeles County District Attorney General George Gascon has called the crime "brazen".
Lady Gaga is yet to comment on the arrests on her social media accounts.