Stokes, who has not featured in Test cricket since England's tour of India in March, is currently taking an 'indefinite' break from the game to focus on his mental health and recover from a finger injury.
Fellow all-rounder Sam Curran has also been left out after a scan revealed a stress fracture in his lower back, but seamer Stuart Broad is included as he continues his recovery from a torn calf.
There are no uncapped players in the squad, which includes recalls for batsman Zak Crawley and off-spinner Dom Bess.
Joe Root's side will play five Tests against Australia, beginning in Brisbane on December 8.
England head coach Chris Silverwood said: "A tour of Australia is the pinnacle as an England Test cricketer. I am delighted that all of our available players have committed to the tour.
"More than half of our squad haven't featured in an Ashes tour before, which means we will be fresh and looking to embrace the cricket and the excitement of touring one of the best places in the world.
"I believe we have selected a well-balanced squad with options in all areas and a blend of youth and experience. There is real competition for places and a genuine desire to work hard and compete, aiming to create some history.
"We are under no illusions about how difficult the task is going to be. Australia have been strong at home in the past, and there is an expectation on them to win this series.
"However, from our point of view, there is genuine excitement and belief that we can do something special."
Broad, who is set to play in his fourth tour of Australia, is due to resume bowling next week at the ECB Performance Centre in Loughborough, where the squad will begin preparations for the Ashes.
They will be joined by the England Lions party, which has yet to be announced, with both groups set to depart for Australia in early November.
Players who are also involved in England's World T20 campaign, which gets under way in the United Arab Emirates later this month, will join up with the rest of the Ashes squad after the tournament.
Joe Root (Yorkshire) Captain
James Anderson (Lancashire)
Jonathan Bairstow (Yorkshire)
Dom Bess (Yorkshire)
Stuart Broad (Nottinghamshire)
Rory Burns (Surrey)
Jos Buttler (Lancashire)
Zak Crawley (Kent)
Haseeb Hameed (Nottinghamshire)
Dan Lawrence (Essex)
Jack Leach (Somerset)
Dawid Malan (Yorkshire)
Craig Overton (Somerset)
Ollie Pope (Surrey)
Ollie Robinson (Sussex)
Chris Woakes (Warwickshire)
Mark Wood (Durham)